The Socratic questioning methodology identifies six types of questions: clarification, assumptions, evidence, viewpoints, consequences and of course- questions about the question.
Questions of clarification ask the learner to explain themselves, to provide examples or to rephrase. This technique is often used in classrooms to check for understanding of the issues and concepts being discussed. Questions that probe assumptions seek out weak foundations of arguments. Many ‘facts’ that are handed down to us, or even stated in textbooks are built on embedded assumptions.
A true guide would show their learners how to unpeel these assumptions and be aware of prejudices, stereotypes and choices made when making statements. Others are questions that probe reasons and evidence that ask the learner “How Do you know?” The evidence is questioned, even going so far as to seek alternatives that may change the conclusion at hand. The adequacy of data, its validity and reliability are taught to be questioned.
A little dry, but a great overview.